BORG AND ACPA HANDGUNS

En 2020, à des combattants extraordinaires, il faut fournir des armes hors du commun. L'usage généralisé des implants cybernétiques dans les forces armées, les milices et la police a ouvert un marché pour des armes qu'aucun homme normal ne pourrait manipuler sans danger. Ainsi, les armes décrites ci-dessous nécessitent au minimum un cyberbras pour leur utilisation. Certaines ne peuvent être utilisées que par un combattant se déplaçant en armure de combat assistée (ACPA). La plupart de ces armes sont rares et ne doivent apparaître à mon sens dans une partie que pour faire peur à vos joueurs.

 

Arasaka Animal
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 12
Rate of fire : 1/3
Cartridge : 14 mm (6D6)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3650 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 27 cm
Country : Japan
This weapon from Arsaka is a monster 14 mm capable of single shot or 3-round burst. In single shot mode the weapon is fairly accurate, however in burst mode the accuracy drops significantly (-2 WA) due to the incredible recoil of the round being fired and the short barrel design.

 

Arasaka Armitage
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Pocket
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 12 mm C (4D6+4)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3560 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 16 cm
Country : Japan
Smaller than the "Misa", and more powerful, this seemed to be exactly what the women of Arasaka were asking for. This is a really nice weapon, very comfortable to shoot, and fairly easily concealable, it almost fits in your pocket.

 

Arasaka Briareos
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 4
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62N (5D6+2)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3150 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 41 cm
Country : Japan
Now this is a handgun, quite possibly one of the largest revolvers available, this fires the full sized 7.62 round. It was designed for use by full conversions and ACPA, but some brave souls have taken it upon themselves to try and fire this thing without augmentation (usually resulting in a broken wrist). A Body minimum of 14 is needed to fire this extremely large weapon.

 

Arasaka Muramasa
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62N (5D6+2)
Reliability : standard
Range : 40 meters
Cost : 1850 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 22 cm
Country : Japan
Arasaka's semi-auto answer to the "Mjolnir". Unlike its brethren this weapon fires full sized 10 mm caseless rounds and offers a superior ammo capacity, unfortunately it also suffers from the heavy construction and even heavier recoil. Still it is very popular in C-SWAT circles as the sidearm of choice.

 

Arasaka Rage 15 mm
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : -1 / -2 en automatique
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 20
Rate of fire : 1/10
Cartridge : 15 mm K (4D10+3 AP)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 100 meters
Cost : 4500 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 53 cm
Country : Japan
For full borgs and powered armor.

 

Arasaka Shenk
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 16
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : .525 (5D6)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2650 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 18 cm
Country : Japan
Another anti-cyborg handgun from Arasaka. The smooth styling and ergonomic design truly stand out in a crowd. Also features an integral laser sight and smartgun link.

 

Ares Predator IV
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 14 mm C (6D6+1)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2485 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 31 cm
Country : USA
This anti-cyborg weapon, chambered in 14 mm, is the latest in a famous line of handguns. For an extra 50 eb you can have it equipped with a single shot 25 mm/12 ga underbarrel launcher.

 

Budget Arms BTS-44
Type : Very heavy shot handgun
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Common
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : CAL12 (4D6/2D6/1D6+1)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 40 meters
Cost : 125 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 16 cm
Country : USA
Budget Arms is trying to compete with Seburo, but failing miserably. For one thing the weapon is ugly as shit, for another the action is known to break easily.

 

Budget Arms Primo
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -3
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Pocket
Magazine : 4
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 12 mm (4D6+1)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 40 meters
Cost : 380 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 12 cm
Country : USA
This pocket sized 14 mm is possibly the most dangerous handgun ever made, to the user as well as the target. The materials it is constructed out of aren't strong enough for the round fired, and there is no slide mechanism to reduce recoil. Instead the barrel is heavily vented. This weapon has a 1-in-8 chance of blowing up everytime it is fired.

 

Budget Arms Scout
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 10
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 14 mm (6D6)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1625 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 30 cm
Country : USA
Another example of too much gun. This weapon comes in three forms, firstly consisting of a large 14 mm as the main weapon, then you can choose either the single shot 10 gauge shotgun, single shot 25 mm grenade launcher, or 20 round 9 mm submachine gun with a ROF of 6. All 3 weapons also come with integral laser sight and vary slightly in outward appearance. The name is rumored to be derived from the Boy Scout motto of "always be prepared".

 

Colt Cobra 525 Magnum
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .525 (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1745 eb
Reference : Blackhammer Cyberpunk Project
Length : 33 cm
Country : USA
This massive double-action revolver has regained popularity in the last year because of it's massive caliber and because of the cased munitions advantage for use with ElectroThermic enhancement.
The Cobra is also available in variants chambered in .44 Special, .45 Colt, .44 Magnum, .50 Action Express and the heavy .454, but no one seems to care. Custom grips are available for an additional $175.

 

Colt Kenyan
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .525 (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2475 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 47 cm
Country : USA
A huge revolver with a short stock, the extra trigger is to activate the integral laser sight.

 

Colt Piranha
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : +2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Non concealable
Magazine : 9
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : 14 mm (6D6)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3860 eb
Reference : Blackhammer Cyberpunk Project
Length : 43 cm
Country : USA
Avec le Piranha, Colt veut concurrencer Malorian sur son propre terrain. Il est moins cher, plus précis et va faire des heureux parmi les amateurs de flingues "plus c'est gros mieux c'est". Son seul gros défaut vient de son canon très long qui n'arrange pas sa maniabilité.

 

Constitutional Arms B34P
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .525 (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1025 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 25 cm
Country : USA

 

Dai Lung Chango
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : -1
Availability : Common
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 12
Rate of fire : 1/3
Cartridge : 14 mm C (6D6+1)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1250 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 30 cm
Country : China
Since it's introduction, this weapon has become the polices worst nightmare. It's reached almost epic popularity among gangs due to its "relative" low price and extremely high caliber. This weapon has given even the cheapest thugs a way to fight back against the most heavily armored police. It's 3-round burst capability make it even more lethal. Of course you get what you pay for, this weapon has a tendency to blow up (every fumble rolled using this weapon has a 50% chance of causing it to explode in your hands). This tendency increases when on 3-round burst (anytime the weapon fumbles, it explodes). The high lethality of this gun, both to enemy and user, have not stopped it from being imported.

 

Farsian HG-02B
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -3
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 7
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .50 BMG (6D10)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3950 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 46 cm
Country : USA
Coming out of nowhere, this producer has decided to make everyone agree about how made the most powerful gun in the market. But is this really smart to introduce this kind of ammo in a so "small" weapon ?

 

Farsian RS-15
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : -1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 15
Rate of fire : 1/15
Cartridge : 15 mm K (4D10+3 AP)
Reliability : standard
Range : 150 meters
Cost : 4800 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 45 cm
Country : USA

 

Luigi Franchi AMOD-8
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : +2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 1
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62S (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 100 meters
Cost : 2715 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 33 cm
Country : Italy
A single shot pistol made by Italy's finest for hunting big game in style.

 

Magnum Opus Big Governement
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 13
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : 14 mm (6D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 60 meters
Cost : 2000 eb
Length : 32 cm
Country : USA
Usable only by full borgs and linear frames. With only a cyberarm, its characteristics change : accuracy -1, ROF 1. A normally sized human (Body< 11) could only hide this weapon under a long coat.

 

Magnum Opus Hellbringer
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 3
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .666M (7D6+3)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 80 meters
Cost : 4000 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 43cm
Country : USA
Usable only by full borgs.

 

Malorian Arms 3516
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 14 mm (6D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 4525 eb
Reference : Chrome
Length : 25 cm
Country : USA

 

Malorian Arms 3600 Super-SMG
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : 0 (-1 en rafales de trois balles)
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 20
Rate of fire : 1/3
Cartridge : 14 mm (6D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 80 meters
Cost : 3000 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 48 cm
Country : USA
This sub-machine gun is so powerful it requires a cyberarm or linear frame. Without one, 1D6+2 points of damage are inflicted on the shooter's arm.

 

Malorian Arms MXP
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 10
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 14 mm C (6D6+1)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 4740 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 25 cm
Country : USA
Malorian made headlines with the 3516, but apparently the lack of aesthetic appeal was a black stain that Malorian felt they had to correct. Now with the release of the MXP all questions about the artistry that is Malorian have been answered. Now Malorian has a proper weapon to fire the 14 mm round that made them famous.

 

Militech PRED-6
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 8
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 14 mm C (6D6+1)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2835 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 25 cm
Country : USA
Yet another large bore sidearm from Militech. The leather padded grips for extra comfort are a nice touch, as is the flip down laser sight on the front of the trigger guard.

 

Nomad Scrapper
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -1
Availability : Common
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 20
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 5.56C (5D6)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 320 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 28 cm
Country : USA
As full conversion cyborgs and other cybernetically enhanced or armored individuals are becoming slowly more prevalent in the nomad community, so is the necessity for weapons that will stop them. This hand made handgun fires the 5.56mm rifle round, which will not only take out even full conversions, but also makes a pretty good vehicle stopper. Unfortunately it's not very reliable and prone to jamming.

 

Norse Technologies Asgard
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +2
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .525 (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1610 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 32 cm
Country : USA
Another anti-cyborg handgun from the team at Norse Tech. One begins to think they really hate full conversions.

 

Norse Technologies Decker
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 3
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .666M (7D6+3)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3250 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 37 cm
Country : USA
For distance the competition in the business of "bigger is better", Norse Technologies made this monster who will find buyers for sure.

 

Norse Technologies Decon-14
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 8
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 14 mm C (6D6+1)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2985 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 27 cm
Country : USA
This anti-cyborg weapon, chambered in 14 mm, is the latest in a promising line of weapons from one of the bright rising stars in handgun manufacturing.

 

Norse Technologies Mjolnir
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Pocket
Magazine : 4
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .50AE (5D6)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1460 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 15 cm
Country : USA

 

Norse Technologies Odin
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 3
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62N (5D6+2)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1285 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 29 cm
Country : USA
The Odin, another ridiculously high powered handgun, designed for C-SWAT to act as a sidearm, and while it is as uselessfor the larger borgs as the standard firearms but for the lighter borgs it is more than effective. It fires cut down 7.62 rifle shells and while the ammo capacity is low, its break-apart design and full moon style speed loaders make reloading a snap.

 

Nova Arms Arnold
Type : Eletrothermal ammo pistol
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : .454P (6D6+3)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 100 meters
Cost : 1799 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 32 cm
Country : USA
Battery of 100 shots : 500 eb.

 

Nova Arms Bronson
Type : Eletrothermal ammo pistol
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : .41P (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 80 meters
Cost : 1199 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 26 cm
Country : USA
Battery of 100 shots : 300 eb.

 

Nova Arms Eastwood
Type : Eletrothermal ammo pistol
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 6
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : .44P (6D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 80 meters
Cost : 1499 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 29 cm
Country : USA
Battery of 100 shots : 400 eb.

 

Panther .74 M-13
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 12
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .74C (5D6 AP)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2750 eb
Reference : Blackhammer Cyberpunk Project
Length : 39 cm
Country : USA
The Sherman Model 13 sells primarily because of it's massive caliber, larger in girth even than the .666 Magnum Opus rounds. The odd design of the gun is for two handed use, and one handed shooting reduces WA by 2.

 

Panther .74 M-15
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 12
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .74C (5D6 AP)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 3850 eb
Reference : Blackhammer Cyberpunk Project
Length : 40 cm
Country : USA
Avec le M-15, Panther Industries ont réussi à "stabiliser" leur oeuvre. Et pour fêter ca ils ont rajouté un lance-grenades 25 mm (précision : -2, chargeur : 1, cadence : 1) !

 

Remington Stormbreaker
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 4
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62N (5D6+2)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 2830 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 35 cm
Country : USA

 

Ruger 525 Magnum
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : .525 (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1895 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 28 cm
Country : USA

 

Ruger RP-107
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 4
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 10 mm MG (8D6)
Reliability : standard
Range : 40 meters
Cost : 1235 eb
Reference : Datafortress 2020
Length : 24 cm
Country : USA
Drop that full borg, or stop that mack truck in its tracks. This gun fires the same 10 mm rifle shell used in the Arasaka Morita and packs one hell of a wallop. Its short barrel design and heavy load make for an extremely well felt recoil, so accuracy is a little troublesome, but the power of this gun, combined with its concealability make it extremely popular with borg hunters and C-SWAT officers.

 

Seburo 25 mm Handcannon
Type : Light grenade launcher
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 5
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 25 mm shell (*)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 200 meters
Cost : 2850 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 39 cm
Country : Japan
Seburo has designed this grenade launcher "gun" in order to be used by a borg or an ACPA. It retakes the same cartridge that the Malorian Arms's Fragmentation Canon :
- Thermal (45 eb each) : melting spray (3000°C at the barrel exit). Damage : Short Range 8D6, Middle Range 6D6, Long Range 4D6. All non metallic armor is reduce to half. Beware to blaze during using.
- 25 mm HEP (30 eb each) : an explosive charge is launched against the target. Damage : 6D6 AP to the target and 3D6 in a 3 meter radius. Can be easily adapted for 25 mm grenades.

 

Seburo C-H14
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : +2
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Non concealable
Magazine : 20
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : 14 mm C (6D6+1)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 4970 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 46 cm
Country : Japan
This "gun" is equiped with an impressive recoilless device who, despite of its efficiency, doesn't allow its using by a normal human. It can be hidden behind a long coat by taking off the handle.

 

Seburo HSG-50
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Non concealable
Magazine : 15
Rate of fire : 2/3/5
Cartridge : .50 BMG (6D10)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 250 meters
Cost : 3850 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 66 cm
Country : Japan
This impressive sub-machine gun is for full borgs and other ACPA only.

 

Smith & Wesson Earth Shaker
Type : Very heavy revolver
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 3
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62N (5D6+2)
Reliability : standard
Range : 50 meters
Cost : 1480 eb
Reference : Cyberpunk 2021
Length : 34 cm
Country : USA
Smith & Wesson purchased a license to manufacture Norse Technologies for its ;Odin". This is his exact copy, except that they took this opportunity to extend the canon, and therefore the precision.

 

Stein & Wasserman Model F
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : 0
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 8
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 13 mm PAI (4D6+3 AP + 1D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 300 meters
Cost : 1650 eb
Length : 49 cm
Country : Germany

 

StreetTech 12-Gauge Pistol
Type : Very heavy shot handgun
Accuracy : -2
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Jacket
Magazine : 9
Rate of fire : 2
Cartridge : CAL12 (4D6/2D6/1D6+1)
Reliability : standard
Range : 30 meters
Cost : 1000 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 31 cm
Country : USA
For use with a linear frame. Without one, ROF : 1, accuracy : -3, concealable : long coat

 

United Armaments 5.56 mm SMG
Type : Very heavy submachinegun
Accuracy : +1
Availability : Poor
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 50
Rate of fire : 2/3/25
Cartridge : 5.56C (5D6)
Reliability : very reliable
Range : 200 meters
Cost : 1200 eb
Reference : Solo of Fortune 2
Length : 39 cm
Country : USA
Can be used by a normal person by adding a foregrip.

 

Wichita Target
Type : Very heavy semi-auto pistol
Accuracy : +4
Availability : Rare
Concealability : Long coat
Magazine : 1
Rate of fire : 1
Cartridge : 7.62N (5D6+2)
Reliability : unreliable
Range : 100 meters
Cost : 1000 eb
Length : 50 cm
Country : Mexico
A very large pistol made to never have to hit more than once. A cyberhand is needed for its use. Recoil compensator and scope come standard.